Glossary of terms used on this site

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Malaria

Malaria is a tropical disease passed on to humans by mosquitoes which can be very severe, even fatal.

Malformation

A defect of an organ, part of an organ or a larger area of the body due to an intrinsically abnormal developmental process. A common example would be cleft lip.

Marker

Biochemical or DNA polymorphism occurring close to a gene and used in gene tracking.

Mastectomies

A mastectomy is an operation to remove the whole breast, usually because it has been affected by cancer. If only part of the breast tissue needs to be removed, it is known as a segmentectomy or segmental mastectomy. If just a lump is removed, it is called a lumpectomy.

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young or MODY affects 1-2% of people with diabetes, although it often goes unrecognised. The 3 main features of MODY are:

Diabetes often develops before the age of 25

Maxillo-facial

Maxillofacial surgery is surgery to repair the face and jaw.

Mendelian inheritance

Inheritance which follows the laws which Mendel proposed. A parent has two copies of a gene at a particular locus, called alleles - one or other of these alleles is transmitted into an individual egg or sperm.

Metabolic

Metabolic : pertaining to metabolism which is the total of all the chemical changes (building up and breaking down of substances) that take place in a cell or organism.

Mitochondria

The organelles (structures) in a cell's cytoplasm chiefly responsible for “energy production”.

Mitochondrial inheritance

Mitochondria contain their own set of genes (this is in addition to the genes in the cell's nucleus). Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA cause several well recognised disorders, often associated with neuromuscular features.

Mitral valve

There are also four valves that control how the blood flows through the heart and around the body. These valves are the mitral valve, the aortic valve, the tricuspid valve and the pulmonary valve.

MODY

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young or MODY affects 1-2% of people with diabetes, although it often goes unrecognised. The 3 main features of MODY are:

Diabetes often develops before the age of 25

Monosomy (Monosomic)

Having only one of the usual pair of genes, DNA segments or whole chromosomes.

Mosaic

The occurrence post-fertilisation of two or more cell lines with different genetic or chromosomal constitutions within a single individual or tissue, occurring as the result of an error in cell division or a new mutation.

Mosaic Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome occurs when a female's cells have one normal X chromosome and the other sex chromosome is missing or altered. Some women with Turner syndrome have a chromosomal change in only some of their cells, which is known as chromosome mosaicism.

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